Unit 8 - Cooperation in the Family
-Have you ever driven a sportscar?
-No I haven't. Have you ever seen the Eiffel tower?
-Yes I have, I've seen it once.
Susan, you will pick up wood for the fire. George, you will light the fire. Jim, you will bring water from the lake.
-I've been very busy lately
-I've had difficulty in doing my errands recently.
Both sentences are in "present perfect tense". The time of the action is indefinite in both of them. We use "recently" and "lately" to talk about recent past. These words are usually in the end of the sentences.
I really enjoy parties because I can see a lot of friends in parties. Sometimes, I meet new people and make friends in parties too. People give parties to have a good time with friends. I haven't been to a party recently, because I've been busy lately.
Tessa promised to bring the cake but she didn't arrive on time. She was late. The kids ordered another cake and have eaten it when Tessa arrived. Tessa didn't keep her promise.
-Hüsnü, can you help me with the preperations of the party?
-Of course. What do you need?
-I need to party hats ballons, I need to send the invitations too.
-I can buy the party hats and balloons. How many hats do you need?
-The party is for ten people, so why don't you buy ten hats.
-Good idea, how abour balloons?
-I think we will need twenty balloons.
-Okay, do you need anything else?
-Well, I will select the music, send the invitations and decorate the room. We also need to order a cake and sume cup cakes.
-I can order them too.
-That would be great. Thank you, Hüsnü.
make a cake
make a party
take a break
take a coat
take an umbrella
take a picture
take a cab
tidy a room
tidy your bed
Present perfect tense, "yet" sözcüğü ile sık sık kullanılır. Bu sözcüğün ingilizce anlamı, henüz yapılmamış bir eylem olarak açıklanabilir. Bu kullanımda, cümleyi olumsuz kurarız.
We haven't gone to the doctor yet.
We haven't talked to the new student yet.
He hasn't left yet?
They haven't bought a car yet.
"yet", soru cümlelerinde de kullanılabilir.
-Have you met the teacher yet?
-No, I haven't met him yet.
-Have the kids eaten lunch yet?
-Yes, they have already eaten lunch.
-Has he repaired the car yet?
-Yes, he has just repaired the car.
"Yet" sözcüğü, cümlenin sonunda kullanılır.
"Henüz yapılmadı" demek, aynı zamanda yapılması bekleniyor demek de oluyor.
He has just finished his homework.
She has just finished her game.
He has just arrived.
The train has just arrived.
We have just called your grandmother.
Bu cümlelerde vurgulanan manayı anlayabildiniz mi? Yapılan işin "henüz, az önce" bittiğini söylemiş oluyoruz. "Just" sözcüğü, "henüz" anlamına gelir ve yardımcı fiil (have, has) den hemen sonra kullanılır.
My sister has already done her homework.
School has already finished.
The match has already started.
They have already cleaned their rooms.
Bu cümlelerde de "zaten, çoktan" gibi manalar çıkıyor. Yani bahsedilen iş zaten bitmiştir. Bu manayı cümleye "already" kelimesi kazandırıyor. "already" kelimesi de, "just" kelimesi gibi e yardımcı fiil (have, has) den hemen sonra kullanılır.
Henüz yapılmamışsa "yet"
henüz bitmişse "just"
zaten, çoktan yapılmışsa "already" kullanırız.
Tekrar hatırlatalım, olumsuz cümleler kurmak için "have not, has not" kullanırız ve bunları kısaca "haven't, hasn't" olarak yazabiliriz.
My parents seldom give me a "to do list" because I do eveything on time. I make my bed everyday and often tidy my room. I keep my room clean. I do my shopping when I need to. I do my homework and projects on time, I help my brother and sisters. My parents only give me a to do list when they want me to do something for the house. My mother wrote "cut the grasses, and take out the trash" to the last to do list, and I did them immediately.
-Hi, Tessa, How are you? How was your day?
-I'm fine, mother. It has been a busy day.
-Could you tidy your room and make the beds Tessa?
-What about the carpets. Why didn't you clean them?
-I was going to clean them but my friend called and we had a very long conversation on the phone. Then my favourite program started on TV and I watched it. I'm sorry.
-That's OK. Have you washed Spotty yet?
-No, I couldn't do it either. The TV program has just finished.
-Can you wash Spotty now?
-I'm afraid I can't. It's getting dark.
-That's very bad.
I'm very upset. I've made the beds. I've emptied the dustbin and I've tidied my room too but I haven't cleaned the carpets or put the books on the shelves yet and I haven't washed Spotty yet. Because I couldn't do these errands, my mother wasn't happy. I did half of the list, but it wasn't enough for her.
Mrs. Thomson has already cooked. The family have just eaten a meal. Someone has just been in the kitchen too because the floors are muddy.
Mrs. Thomson hasn't cleaned the kitchen yet. She hasn't cleaned the floors yet. She hasn't done the dishes yet. She hasn't fed Spotty yet either.