Unit Two 1

Yayınlanma 7. Sınıf İngilizce Konu Anlatımı

Geçmiş zamanı ifade etmek için, fiil cümlelerinde yüklemi past hale çevirmek gerekir. Past hali v2 olarak ifade ediyoruz. Çoğu fiil, sonuna "-ed" takısı eklenerek past hale çevrilebilir. Bunlara ingilizce dilbilgisinde "düzenli fiiller" yani "regular verbs" deriz.

He worked for that company for fourteen years.

We stayed at home last night.

The car crashed into a dog.

The game ended at half past six yesterday.

 

Bazı fiiller ise "irregular" yani düzensizdir. Düzensiz fiillerin past halleri ile ilgili herhangi bir kural yoktur. Aşağıda, tabloda en sık kullanılan bazı düzensiz filleri listeledik. Bunları örnekler ile kullanarak pekiştirmeliyiz. Bir süre sonra, size de çok kolay gelmeye başlayacaklarına eminim.

 

 

 

 

 

v1

v2

v1

v2

Come

build

cut

fall

go

see

leave

write

sell

sleep

take

understand

win

wear

say

teach

read

Came

built

cut

fell

went

saw

left

wrote

sold

slept

took

understood

won

wore

said

taught

read

Find

catch

do

drive

have

make

meet

run

sit

speak

tell

buy

stand

eat

give

hear

know

think

Found

caught

did

drove

had

made

met

ran

sat

spoke

told

bought

stood

ate

gave

heard

knew

thought

 

 

My uncle won the lottery last year.

I bought some ice cream for my little brother.

I went to a movie yesterday.

The guy took some money, and ran away.

I met a famous actor two weeks ago.

I did all my homework before dinner so now, I'm watching tv.

 

Olumsuz hal ve soru hali için, "do" yardımcı fiilini past hali ile "did" olarak kullanacağız. "did", bütün şahıslar için kullanılır. Yardımcı fiil kullanıldıktan sonra, yüklemin yalın halde kullanılması gerektiğini de unutmayalım. Yani, eğer cümleyi olumsuz veya soru cümlesi yapmak için "did" eklersek, yüklemi yine v1 olarak kullanmalıyız; varsa "-ed" takısını da çıkaracağız.

Atakan didn'tstudy for the test.

You didn'teat a lot of food tonight.

They didn'ttalk to each other last week.

He didn't listen to the teacher.

 

Did you see the game last night?

Did everyone do their exercises?

How did you go to school yesterday?

What did you see on the table?

 

-What did you do after school last night?

-I rested for an hour. Then I played with my friends in the garden. At 6 o'clock, we had dinner. Then I did my homework. I went to bed at half past ten last night.

 

-Did the man like his new house?

-Yes, he did.        veya        Yes, he liked his new house.

 

-Did the cat catch the mouse?

-No it didn't         veya        No, it didn't catch the mouse.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"anybody, anything, somebody,  something, somewhere, anywhere"

Bu sözcüklere belgesiz zamirler deriz. Bu ifadeler kesin, ayırt edici bilgi vermeden, tanıtmadan isimlere işaret ederler.

The children always want something.

I see something in the sky!

Your teacher talks to somebody in the street everyday.

 

There is somebody in the bathroom but there isn't anybody in the living room.

The box is empty. There isn't anything in the box.

 

The suitcase is heavy. There is something in the suitcase.

 

-Do you have anything in your pocket?

-Yes, I have a little, red ball in my pocket.

 

-I can't find my book anywhere. Did you see my book?

-Yes I saw it somewhere but I can't remember.

 

-There are twenty students in this class now. There were twenty one students yesterday.

-Somebody is absent.

 

I don't know anybody in this room.

I haven't got anything in my bag.

The doctor can't find his pen anywhere.

 

Gördüğünüz gibi, "somebody,  something, somewhere" ifadeleri olumlu cümlelerde kullanılırken,

"anybody, anything, anywhere"  ifadeleri sadece soru cümlelerinde ve olumsuz cümlelerde kullanılır.